Thursday, May 21, 2020

`` Fist, Stick Knife, And Gun `` - 1266 Words

In every city there are neighborhoods that struggle with the issue of violence, crime and aggression. These neighborhoods have also taken on the names of slums and ghettos. The same areas where children are faced with growing up too fast because of the violence, crime and drug trafficking that has taken over these communities. Not only do these children and young adult face with these issues, they are also faced with the reality that in these disorganized neighborhoods, there is a breakdown of the traditional family therefore they must learn and master the code of conduct and or the rules of the streets in order to survive. Not to mention learning the demands of socially regarding displaying appropriate behavior when they are outside of the disorganized community. In the book, Fist, stick knife, gun, the author shared his experience of growing up in a society in which he needed to learn the code of conduct that regulated what was fair and unfair when it came to surviving and protecting himself throughout his childhood. Not only did Canada learn how to fight mentally and physically and where there is no social control. Early on in Canada’s life, he had come to realize that because he had lived in an area that consisted of poverty and crime. Through Canada’s encounter with the police regarding someone stealing $10.00 from the family, and the fact the police had done nothing to protect his family. At that time he had learned that if you do the right thingShow MoreRelatedFist Stick Knife Gun Essay1524 Words   |  7 PagesJen Jeffrey Juvenile Justice and Delinquency October 21, 2001 Critique of Fist Stick Knife Gun The Book Fist Stick Knife Gun by Geoffrey Canada is a biographical account of his childhood in the south Bronx. He and his 4 brothers were raised by only their mother. She would survive on no more than ten dollars a week. He moved several times as a child until finally landing on union avenue, the place were many of his life lessons were learned and at times applied. He learned about the rankingRead More Critique of Geoffrey Canadas Fist Stick Knife Gun Essay1506 Words   |  7 PagesCritique of Geoffrey Canadas Fist Stick Knife Gun The Book â€Å"Fist Stick Knife Gun† by Geoffrey Canada is a biographical account of his childhood in the south Bronx. He and his 4 brothers were raised by only their mother. She would survive on no more than ten dollars a week. He moved several times as a child until finally landing on union avenue, the place were many of his life lessons were learned and at times applied. He learned about the ranking process of kids on union Ave. and how the onlyRead MoreAnalysis Of The Book Fist Stick Knife Gun By Geoffrey Canada Essay2179 Words   |  9 Pagesthoroughly convincing. His Book Fist Stick Knife Gun, is a great explanation of violence and poverty in late 20th century here in America’s inner cities. Of how he changed from a timid and frightened child into a young man who could hold his own in a fight in the streets, is written in a believable way. Canada actually learned the way of the streets because he grew up in the streets. All of his experiences first started when he was a child when he and his friends used their fists to settle disputes and toRead MoreThe Importance Of Teaching A Past Lesson836 Words   |  4 Pagesand students alike to understand how classroom interactions can become more meaningful. In addition to my lesson analysis, I have also included a lesson plan and its subsequent reflection. The lesson provided was an opening lesson for my Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun Unit. The intention was to lead with high levels of engagement in order for students to buy in to the upcoming Unit. In the past, my principal and new teacher mentor has suggested videos and co-operative learning strategies that will allowRead MoreI Am An Active Participant898 Words   |  4 Pagesstudents witnessed uproar after the death of Freddy Gray. While coming up with a Unit Plan, I knew it had to be relevant to what my students are currently experiencing. After conferencing with several teachers, I finally decided to teach Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun. Our Essential Q uestion for the Unit is, Where does violence come from and how can we stop it? Acknowledging what my students are going through rather than sweeping it under the rug appeals to the part of the standard that requires teachingRead MoreA Very Thoughtful Look Into Inner City Violence And The Rules Surrounding It1718 Words   |  7 Pagesis thoroughly convincing. His Book Fist Stick Knife Gun, is a great explanation of violence and poverty in late 20th century here in America. His story of how he changed from a timid and frightened child into a young man who could hold his own in a fight in the streets is written in a believable way. Canada actually learned the way of the streets because he grew up in the streets It first started when he was a child when he and his friends used their fists to settle disputes and to gain a reputationRead MoreEnding Of Huck783 Words   |  4 Pagesinto the forest, the boys had found a huge stick pile. Huck then took out his pocket knife and said â€Å"well?... Let’s get to carving.† So then all the boys proceeded to carve out wooden knifes, spears, rings, and small animals while singing. That’s when Tom said â€Å"hey, we could carve wooden guns and play cowboys and Indians!† All the boys agreed to this proposition, and so that’s exactly what the boys did for the next 45 minutes. All boys had their own wooden guns that they all made individually, and thenRead MoreRacial Profiling by Police Essay1669 Words   |  7 Pages Brent Staples’ essay, â€Å"When the Paranoids Turn Out to be Right,† acknowledges the issues of racism and racial profiling committed by police. In â€Å"Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun,† Geoffrey Canada also expresses views on this issue when he asserts that police fail to protect and serve individuals in poor neighborhoods. Staples contends, â€Å"Among the day-to-day acts of discrimination that shadow African Americans, none are more stressful or dangerous than those committed by police, some of whom treat black peopleRead MoreGeoffrey Canada and the Harlem Childrens Zone Essay1672 Words   |  7 Pagesand kept them privy to the civil rights struggles that their community was facing (AE, 2011). Growing up in Harlem was challenging. Early on, Canada knew that there was a ranking order in the South Bronx. He highlights this in his book, Fist, Stick, Knife, Gun: A Personal History of Violence in America (1995). Canada tells a story about how his two older brothers were playing at the park one day. The younger of the two boys, took off his jacket. A boy at the playground threatened the Geoffrey’sRead MoreEssay on Freedom Riders1426 Words   |  6 Pagesbut the bus got away until about six miles down the road. The mob caught up to the bus and surrounded it until Ell Cowling, a police officer, pulled out his gun and badge and the Klansman backed away. Someone from the mob had thrown a flaming device into a bus window and the bus went up in flames (Garrow 2). Two highway patrolmen fired their guns to scare the crowd and make them leave so the passengers could safely get off the bus. Only twelve riders were taken to the hospital to be treated for smoke

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Addiction And The Family Addiction - 2026 Words

Addictions and The Family Addiction has been an aspect in the family atmosphere for centuries. The majority of treatment options have focused on the addict and how to help them and not dealing with the issues that the family members are facing as well. When families are faced with a loved one dealing with an addiction they go through physical challenges such as possible abuse, social challenges, emotional distress such as depression, and financial hardships. In the article Family Systems Theory: A Unifying Framework For Codependence, Prest and Protinsky quote C. Whitfield â€Å" The compulsive and addictive behavioral patterns in which these people are engaged seriously affect the lives of three to five people with whom they are closely†¦show more content†¦The biological factors that reasearchers say might influence addiction are genetic factors. Researchers have contributed genetics as a cause since there is â€Å"hereditary biological differences that make some individu als either more or less susceptible to drug dependence than others† (U.S Congress, Office of Technology pg. 6). When there are biological influences involved in addiction, and there is one or more family members that have suffered from addiction there could be the possibility of a genetic deposition for addiction. Psychological factors that could contribute to addiction are; depression, death in the family, and the need to take risks. In the commentary by Roozen et al. Involving Families in Addiction Treatment – The Way Forward he states that â€Å"Research has shown consistently that family members living with an active addiction problem suffer stress that can be severe and long-lasting and are frequent users of the health-care system, presenting with physical and psychological stress symptoms.† (Roozen et al. pg. 105). In our current society people are under more pressure and stress from not only personal problems but work and social issues as well. These issue s may cause people to start using some sort of an addictive substance in an effort to feel normal. A death in the family can be unbearable for some individuals and they will

Crime Statistics Comparison Free Essays

Crime statistics endeavour to provide statistical measures of crime in societies. They provide a point of analysis and comparison, allow countries to form long-term patterns and trends and can help to develop and reform criminal justice policies as well as being more meaningful than raw numbers. Using the countries of Bahrain and the United States as a comparison point for the following issues which surround crime statistics such as biases, agendas and general influences like education and religion; this essay will be focused around analysing the statistical factors and wider influences which can allow a country to have low or high crime rates. We will write a custom essay sample on Crime Statistics Comparison or any similar topic only for you Order Now Crime Definitions Definitions of what exactly constitutes being a crime differ not only across countries but even across states. This can be an issue with statistics as in order to measure and compare crime consistently crimes need to be classified and placed into groups of similar offences. While murder is a crime recognized and agreed upon by most nations, what makes up a homicide may be more challenging and then even simply just a ‘crime against the person’ can vary widely. This often means that what makes up a crime for many offences can vary throughout jurisdictions. This is a problem when categorizing offences for international statistical comparison. An example of this is the way that laws differ state to state within the United States, while ‘offences known to police’ is a statistic seen as quite a high representative figure of the offences, a lot of researches see that no official measure can ever come close to the actual amount of criminality that exists in any form in society (Archer, 1984) Definitional problems are concerned with whether or not crimes have equivalent meanings between nations, which in most cases a lot of crimes seem not to have. Countries most often vary in behaviours which can sometimes be seen as coming within the space of the law. So for any kind of comparison of crime rates to work at all, it is crucial that the definitions of crimes and the categories they are placed in are similar. The next issue with definitions is that even the different organizations that compile crime statistics differ within their own definitions. Interpol for example defines murder as: Any act performed with the purpose of taking human life, excluding abortion but including infanticide (and including attempts). Kalish, 1988) While the World Health Organization (WHO) does not distinguish between intentional or unintentional homicides but does not include attempts under this organization attempts fall under a separate legal distinction(Kalish, 1988). And again, the United Nations have a different definition for homicide: Death purposely inflicted by another person, including infanticide. (Kalish, 1988) Due to major issues with the above topics across all countries, due to definitional and categorical differences, crime statistics can differ significantly. In Bahrain, crimes against the individual are ranked in relation to the seriousness of the offence, murder, attempted murder, murder by error, assault, threatening and others. In the United States, offences are not classed separately, but into broad categories which are homicides, robberies and assaults. Bahrain does not report rape as a single category and in response, no reports of rape have been sent to their criminal investigation unit (Ministry of Information, 1985). Reporting Issues The quality of the way crime is reported is likely to be influenced by a wide range of practices and techniques in different jurisdictions. For example in Bahrain, individual police departments participation in reporting crime rates is compulsory, but neither the numbers of convictions or the final outcome of cases are reported, whereas, local police departments in the United States are under no obligation to report back crime rates from their areas as participation is voluntary (Newman, 1993). Honesty or dishonesty of police who are involved in the collection and compilation process of statistics (Adler, 1983) and the manipulation of the data compiled for political reasons – which will be discussed later – are some other examples of things than can influence the quality of the crime that is reported. In the United States for example, every case involving multiple offences by the same person that are compiled by police, the statistic noted down is only in relation to the most serious offence that has occurred (Reichel, 1994). Underreporting is an influence on the reporting of crime as it affects basically every area and any data that is compiled by police. In many occasions and for many different reasons people do not report offenses they are victims of or that they witness. There is a ‘dark-figure’ of crime in both Bahrain and the United States, there have been no victimisation studies conducted in Bahrain to date, but on the opposite side, the victimisation surveys that have been conducted in the United States show higher crime rates than the Uniform Crime Reporting System shows (Federal Bureau of Investigation, 1981-1987). Another reason there are issues with extremely low or quite high crime rates is the issue of political influences. Police may exaggerate statistics in their areas to draw funding to their area for upgrades and to gain more police numbers, or even down the crime statistics to reflect success of their force, to show the people of the country and the world that they are doing their job correctly and well. The government can also do the above, by altering the statistics, they can create a sense of fear in there people to gain votes through public advertising that they will combat the high rates of crime in certain areas, or downgrade the rates to adhere to international requirements, to attempt to get the country placed on the ‘best of’ lists within international media as a way to gain tourism by showing they are a safe place to visit. Wider Influences: Bahrain is a country which operates on all levels in relation to the teachings of the Qur’an. This makes up the fabric of life for the Bahraini people, the influence of the Islamic religion can be seen in the economic, political and social pathways of life within the culture of the country. In Bahrain, religion is the most important structure. The Islamic religion opposes wrongdoing in all its forms and that any wrongdoing can lead to the downfall of society. The teachings of the Prophet attempt to get rid of all forms of crime before it happens by influencing the individuals who follow the religion. Acts against the law therefore is not only a crime against society in the eyes of Bahraini people it is also a violation of the principles of God. In Bahrain there are even ‘moral police officers’ who regulate the dress and public behaviour of citizens (Helal, 1991). As the Qur’an provides the basis for society, it also provides the base for which laws are made. All laws however have major influence from the Western cultures, apart from marriage, divorce and succession which all fall under the Shari’ah. Souryal, 1988)Therefore religion is a major influence in relation to everything, right down to helping explain the low crime rate in Bahrain. Citizens are able to speak directly to the ruler of Bahrain for a few days each month this allows the people to feel that they are in touch with their government as they are able to voice their concerns directly (Helal, 1991). Therefore crimes against the state are less likely to be committed as people feel as if they play a greater role than just an individual in a wider community. Souryal (1988) has noted in his studies that since firearms, drugs and alcohol are all banned, the opportunity for violence is reduced. Ontop of this, the way the law is applied to Muslim offenders acts as a deterrent to the Bahraini citizens. The penalty for committing a crime is harsher if the offender is Muslim and has committed an offence against a Muslim, the Islamic penal code is also enforced against non-Muslims in the country. Some punishments that can be given out include amputation, stoning, flogging and death which can be executed in public (Moore, 1987). The influence of education within Bahrain is a major factor that can be related back to the low crime rate of the country. Islam religion is tied tightly into the education at all levels in Bahrain, and education is compulsory for all children living in the country also (Helal, 1991). The United States however has a separation between church and state, which is not the case in Bahrain. Within the United States, there is a separation of powers, it is a multicultural society which also makes it multi-faith, to base all laws on just the one religion within the United States would most likely cause more crime rather than decrease the rate. Within the United States alcohol and firearms are legal once of a certain age, therefore the high crime rate within the country can be related back to the availability to things that aid criminal acts and violence. Education within the United States changes in relation to the age of compulsory education, it ranges from between 14 to 18 (State Compulsory Attendance Laws, 2007). Religion is not taught within all schools due to the adversity of religions within each state and the country as a whole. There are schools which focus on specific religions, these however are private schools and advertise that they do these teachings (Religion in Schools, 2004). The major difference between the two countries, other than the rate of crime, Bahrain’s crime rate being quite low compared to the United States, is the issue of religion within not just the country, but as the basis for all the laws and the way the entire community of Bahrain lives their life. In conclusion, there are so many reasons by which crime statistics can be altered due to not only issues with reporting and recording, but definitional issues and wider societal influences. It is not until recently that any one organization has attempted to compile and compare cross-national crime statistics, for this to be done however, organizations need to find a way to combat the above issues outlined. The United Nations have pushed for a standard level of classification of offences and the collection of statistics across continents which would set out minimum standards for the collection, analysis and presentation of the statistics. (Vetere, 1977). This is just one way we can start to remove bias and definitional errors. The true rate of crime is impossible to compare or even start to determine. The amounts of crime reported demonstrate that there is a major difference between the two countries in terms of crime rates. The Islamic religion within Bahrain lays the foundations for life and can be seen woven into critical social areas within the community, all in which can create the basis for crime to become a realty; within Bahrain however, due to the tight influence religion has on one’s conscience, it has the opposite impact (Helal, 1991). The United States has the separation of church and state, therefore fewer values are shared throughout the country, which allows for breaks within society and these can be seen as the basis for crime to be committed, therefore raising the crime rate rather than lowering it. It would be simply ridiculous to implement the way Bahraini society is run into the United States(Helal, 1991). But the influence that the combination of church and state within a country like Bahrain has on the Bahraini people is simply just one way in which can be shown to keep crime rates low. References http://www.edweek.org/ew/issues/religion-in-schools http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0112617.html How to cite Crime Statistics Comparison, Essay examples

Friday, April 24, 2020

Virtual Reality Essays (269 words) - Virtual Reality, Simulation

Virtual Reality Virtual Reality is interactivity in such a way that the user actually feels immersed in the world that the computer creates. Special clothing, headgear and equipment, depending upon the application. The clothing contains sensors that record the users movements and immediately transmit that information back to the computer. For example, to walk through a virtual reality simulation of a house, you would need garb that monitors the movement of your feet, hands and head. You would also need goggles that contain video screens and also audio attachments and feeling gloves so that you can be immersed in the computer feedback. Virtual reality also provides benefits in educational, scientific and business work. Japan has just put it to work in its department stores. The stores sell kitchen appliances called Virtual Kitchen. The prospective buyers bring their kitchen layouts to the department store, where trained staff enters a copy of the design into the computer. The customers then don the appropriate equipment and suddenly find themselves in their own kitchen. These appliances can be tried out in various sizes, colours and locations. They can also test the opening and closing of the cabinet doors and drawers. They can place their existing table and chairs into the picture so that the scene will be very realistic. They can walk around and discover and feel the ambiance of the new kitchen. With this technology, the customer is able to buy with a great more deal of confidence What Are Its Uses Virtual Reality is used: 1) In surgery system to view the virtual brain with superb three dimensional reality. 2) To simulate fatigue of cancer patients 3) In some electronic games 4) To stimulate construction designs 5) In amusement park attractions.

Tuesday, March 17, 2020

What Is Class Rank What Is a Good Rank

What Is Class Rank What Is a Good Rank SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Have you heard of class rank but aren’t sure what it is? Maybe you want to know why class rank is important or how you can figure out what a good class rank is. And, by the way, what is a good class rank? We have answers to all these questions! Read on to learn what class rank is, how schools calculate it, and how it’s important for your future. What Is Class Rank? Class rank is a way to see how your academic achievements measure up to those of your classmates. Your class rank is determined by comparing your GPA to the GPA of people in the same grade as you. So, if you are a junior and your high school has 500 juniors, each of them will receive a number, 1-500, with the person who has the highest GPA ranked #1. If there are 500 people in your class and your class rank is 235, then 234 of your classmates have a higher GPA than you, 265 classmates have a lower GPA than you, and you are in the top half of your class. Class rank is reevaluated each grading period, whether that is semesters or trimesters at your school. So, every time new grades are added to transcripts, class rankings are updated and your rank may go up or down. How Do Different Schools Measure Class Rank? All class ranking methods involve assigning each student a number based on how their GPA compares to that of their classmates. However, there are several different ways to measure class rank. There are two main types of class rank: weighted and unweighted. Unweighted class rank determines your rank by using your unweighted GPA. Unweighted GPAs are measured on a scale of 0 to 4.0 and do not take into account the difficulty of your courses. Weighted class rank determines your rank by using your weighted GPA. Weighted GPAs usually range from a scale of 0 to 5.0 and do take the difficulty of your courses into account. So what does this mean for your ranking? If you have taken honors or AP classes, your weighted class rank will likely be better than your unweighted class rank, even if you didn’t receive A’s in all those courses. This is because more challenging courses are given a higher weight (usually a 5.0) when calculating GPAs. For unweighted class rank, a person who takes regular-level classes and receives straight A’s in them will have the same unweighted GPA and class rank as a student who took all honors and AP classes and got straight A’s in them. For unweighted GPAs, every A, no matter how difficult the course, counts as a 4.0. Some high schools provide weighted class rank, some unweighted class rank, and some provide both rankings. To learn more about unweighted vs. weighted GPAs read our guide on the topic. Your class rank also determines your class percentile. If your school does not list your percentile, it is easy to figure out. Divide your class rank by the number of students in your grade, multiply by 100, then subtract that number from 100. For example, if there are 600 students in your grade and you are ranked 120th, then you are in the 80th percentile because (120/600)*100=20, and 100-20=80. You are also in the top 20% of your class. Why Is Class Rank Important? Besides letting students know how they stack up against their classmates, class rank is used for several other reasons. #1: College Applications Class rank offers a way for colleges to see how your academic achievements compare to those of your classmates. For example, if you attend a high school that gives very few A’s and you have a transcript with mostly B’s and C’s, this may make your GPA lower than the average applicant's GPA. However, admissions officers will see by your high class rank that you were one of the best students in your grade, and this will strengthen your application. Conversely, if you have straight A’s but only took easy classes or went to a high school that gave many A’s, you may have a great GPA but your class rank will not be particularly high because a lot of your classmates received the same grades you did. Your class rank helps colleges put your GPA into context and gives them more insight into your academic abilities. Some states offer high school students guaranteed admission to state universities if they have a certain class rank. For example, Florida students are guaranteed admission to at least one in-state university if they are in the top 20% of their graduating class. #2: Scholarships Some scholarships require applicants to have achieved a certain class rank or percentile (such as top 25% of your class) in order to be applicable. Like colleges, scholarship committees may also use class rank as one criterion to judge a student’s academic abilities, along with GPA and standardized test scores. #3: High School Honors Some high schools award honors to graduating seniors who achieved a certain class rank, such as top 10% or 25% of their class. There are also honors for those at the very top of their class rankings. The graduating senior who is ranked #1 in the class is honored as the valedictorian and often gives a speech at graduation. The person ranked #2 is the salutatorian of the class. Why Do Some Schools No Longer Use Class Rank? Although class rank has long been used by colleges to help judge students’ academic skills, only about half of US high schools currently provide class rank. There are several reasons more and more schools have stopped using class rank. Some schools believe that students who just miss important percentiles, like top 10% or 25% of their class, may be unfairly disadvantaged for scholarships and college admissions. For example, a student in the top 11% of their class may have a GPA very similar to a student in the top 9%, but may not receive certain scholarships or college offers because they aren’t in the top 10% of their class. Some also feel that class rank doesn’t promote teamwork and cooperation because it makes students too competitive with each other as they vie to improve their class rank. Some schools also believe that providing class rank encourages students to take easier classes to boost their ranking, instead of challenging themselves and taking more difficult classes where they may not get an A, but may learn more. There are also schools that no longer assign a rank to each student, but only provide broad percentiles. These percentiles may divide the class into quarters and show if a particular student is in the top 25, 50, or 75% of her class. This lets you know roughly how well you are doing compared to your classmates, but you won’t know your exact class rank. Some schools also only use percentiles to designate which students are in the top 10% or 15% of their class and don’t provide percentiles for students below that cutoff. Because fewer high schools are including it on transcripts, many colleges are giving class rank less importance when they review college applications. Instead of using class rank as a critical admissions criteria, some colleges instead focus more other components of a student's transcript such as GPA or the rigor of the classes taken. You won't need to search too hard to find your class rank. How to Find Your Class Rank In order to find your class rank, first check your most recent report card or high school transcript. Your class rank should be there, usually near the bottom of the page. You should be able to see what your class rank is and how many people are in your class. Your school may also provide your percentile, as well as indicate whether your ranking is weighted or unweighted (or it may provide both). If you can’t find this information, or don’t have access to your report cards or transcripts, stop by the school office or ask your guidance counselor. They should be able to give you your class rank. If your school doesn't provide class rank, they may still be able to give you a percentile estimate. If you're interested in learning this information, try asking something like, "I would like to learn my class rank so I have a better idea of my chances for getting into college. If you can't provide my exact rank, could you tell me what rough percentile I fit into?" How to Find What Percentile You're In Many schools will list your percentile along with your rank, but if your school doesn't, it's easy to figure out. Use this formula: (1- (your class rank / number of people in your class)) * 100 = your percentile If a student is ranked 78th out of 600 people in her grade, she'd plug in those numbers and get: (1- (78 / 600)) * 100 = 87 So, she'd be in the 87th percentile. Remember, percentiles show how many people you're ranked above, so a higher number is better. Being 87th percentile means that her class rank is higher than 87% of her classmates' class ranks. By subtracting 87 from 100, you can also see that this student's class rank puts her in the top 13% of her class. What If Your School Doesn't Include Class Rank? Only about 60% of high schools still use class rank, so if your school doesn’t provide class rankings, you are not alone. Some students worry that if their school doesn’t provide class rank, it will hurt their chances of getting into college. However, this is not true. When a high school doesn’t provide class rank, colleges simply look at other information, such as GPA, high school transcripts, and standardized test scores to judge a student’s academic ability. As mentioned above, because fewer high schools provide class rank, it is becoming less important for college admissions. How far away are you from a 4.0? Use our easy GPA tool to pinpoint how well you have to do in future classes to get your GPA up to that magical number. What Is a Good Class Rank? So now that you know what your class rank is, what's a good class rank? This answer depends on a lot of factors, including your high school and where you hope to go to college, but we can still give some general answers. If you want to attend college, your minimum goal should be to have a class rank that puts you in the upper half of your class. So if you have a class of 500, you'd want your rank to be 249 or higher. You can certainly get into colleges with a lower class rank (especially if you go to a highly competitive high school and/or magnet school), but being in the top half of your class is a good baseline goal to aim for since it shows colleges that you're an above-average student at your school. If you want to attend a more competitive college, you should aim to have a class rank that puts you in the top 25% of your class, or the 75th or higher percentile. For Ivy League and other top tier schools, a class rank in the top 10% or 5% is a good goal to aim for. Remember though, that colleges take many factors into consideration when they look at college applications, and your class rank is just one piece of the puzzle. Having an overall strong applicationwith high grades, a transcript showing you took difficult classes, strong letters of recommendation, and dedication to extracurricularsmatters much more than just your class rank alone. Recap: What You Need to Know About Class Rank Class rank is a way to compare a student’s grades to those of her classmates. Students are given a number ranking based on their GPA. Class rank can be weighted, unweighted, or only include percentiles. Class rank is one criteria colleges use to determine an applicant’s academic abilities. Some high schools no longer use class rank due to growing concerns that it causes students to take less challenging courses and puts students who are just outside certain percentiles at an unfair disadvantage when applying to colleges. Your class rank can typically be found on your high school transcript or report card. If your high school doesn’t include class rank, it won’t negatively affect your chances of getting into college. Universities have many other criteria, such as your GPA, essays, and standardized test scores, to help make their decision. What's Next? Wondering what else colleges look for on your transcript? Check out our guide on what information a high school transcript includes and why it's important for college applications. Want to improve your class rank? Read our guide on different strategies to raise your GPA in high school. Wondering how strong your GPA is? Learn what a good GPA is for college. How far away are you from a 4.0? Use our easy GPA tool to pinpoint how well you have to do in future classes to get your GPA up to that magical number.

Sunday, March 1, 2020

Magnetic Reversal of the Earths Poles

Magnetic Reversal of the Earth's Poles In the 1950s, ocean-going research vessels recorded puzzling data based on the magnetism of the ocean floor. It was determined that the rock of the ocean floor had bands of embedded iron oxides that alternately pointed toward geographic north and geographic south. This  was not the first time such confusing evidence had been found. In the early 20th century, geologists had found some volcanic rock was magnetized in a manner opposite to what was expected. But it was the extensive 1950s data that prompted a widespread  investigation, and by 1963 a theory of the reversal of the earths magnetic field was proposed.  It has been a fundamental of earth science ever since. How the Earths Magnetic Field Is Created The earths magnetism is thought to be created by slow movements in the liquid outer core of the planet, which consists largely of iron, caused by the rotation of the earth. Much the way  the rotation of a generator coil creates a magnetic field, the rotation of the liquid outer core of the earth generates a weak electromagnetic field. This magnetic field extends out into space and serves to deflect solar wind from the sun. The generation of the earths magnetic field is a continuous but variable process. There is a frequent change in the intensity of the magnetic field, and the precise location of the magnetic poles can drift. True magnetic north does not always correspond to the geographic North Pole. It also can cause the complete reversal of the earths entire magnetic field polarity. How We Can Measure Magnetic Field Changes Liquid lava, which hardens into rock, contains grains of iron oxides that react to the earths magnetic field by pointing toward the magnetic pole as the rock solidifies. Thus, these grains are permanent records of the location of the earths magnetic field at the time the rock forms. As new crust is created on the ocean floor, the new crust solidifies with its iron oxide particles acting like miniature compass needles, pointing to wherever magnetic north is at the time. Scientists studying the lava samples from the bottom of the ocean could see that the iron oxide particles were pointing in unexpected directions, but to understand what this meant, they needed to know when the rocks formed, and where they were located at the time they solidified out of liquid lava.   The method of dating rock through radiometric analysis has been available since the early 20th century, so it was an easy enough matter to find the age of the rock samples found on the ocean floor.   However, it was also known that the ocean floor moves and spreads over time, and it was not until 1963 that rock aging information was combined with information about how the ocean floor spreads to produce a definitive understanding of where those iron oxide particles were pointing at the time the lava solidified into rock.   Extensive analysis now shows that the earths magnetic field has reversed about 170 times over the last 100 million years. Scientists continue to evaluate data, and there is much disagreement over how long these periods of magnetic polarity last and whether the reversals happen at predictable intervals or are irregular and unexpected. What are the Causes and Effects? Scientists do not really know what causes the reversals of the magnetic field, although they have duplicated the phenomenon in laboratory experiments with molten metals, which also will spontaneously change the direction of their magnetic fields. Some theorists believe that magnetic field reversals may be caused by tangible events, such as tectonic plate collisions or impacts from large meteors or asteroids, but this theory is discounted by others. It is known that leading up to a magnetic reversal, the strength of the field declines, and since the strength of our current magnetic field is now in steady decline, some scientists believe we will see another magnetic reversal in about 2,000 years.   If, as some scientists suggest, there is a period during which there is no magnetic field at all before the reversal occurs, the effect on the planet is not well understood. Some theorists suggest that having no magnetic field will open the earths surface to dangerous solar radiation that potentially might lead to global extinction of life. However, there is currently no statistical correlation that can be pointed to in the fossil record to verify this. The last reversal occurred about 780,000 years ago, and there is no evidence to show that there were mass species extinctions at that time. Other scientists argue that the magnetic field does not vanish during reversals, but merely grows weaker for a time. Although we have at least  2,000 years to wonder about it, if a reversal were to occur today, one obvious effect would be mass disruption to communications systems. Much the way solar storms can affect satellite and radio signals, a magnetic field reversal would have the same effect, though to a much more pronounced degree.

Friday, February 14, 2020

Sociology - What is the difference betweex sex and gender How is this Essay

Sociology - What is the difference betweex sex and gender How is this distinction made - Essay Example Sex was â€Å"nature† and gender was â€Å"nurture†. In the language of Sociology, gender roles replaced sex roles, as gender represented more accurately than sex the social construction of identities and roles dividing societies into women and men. Sex and gender were interdependent, but clearly distinguished. Gender was social, thus variable and subject to change, while sex represented the essential and unchanging physical differences in human reproduction. An implicit causal link existed between sex and gender (Acker, 1992; Wilson, 1989). Feminist sociologists (e.g. Rossi, 1984) who took a biosocial view of gender, saw gender behaviour at least in part, as physiologically determined. They posited a clear distinction and a causal link between sex and gender. However, Acker (1992) states that variations in actions and feelings among both men and women, as well as similarities between women and men seemed too great, to permit the tracing of behaviour to biological differences. On the other hand, according to Butler (2005: 48), â€Å"because gender is fundamentally a way in which we make sense of ourselves as embodied creatures, no investigation of gender can allow itself to be carried too far off from the body. Gender reminds us that our bodies are not merely tools that we use to various ends. Our bodies are ourselves; their gender has a meaning and a value that is not merely instrumental†. In current usage gender is theorized as a basic principle of social structure and cultural interpretation (Scott, 1986; Acker, 1988). According to Unger (1979), gender refers to the traits and behaviors considered characteristic of and appropriate to members of each sexual category. These may be physiological, biosocial or environmental. In explaining gender as a constitutive element of social relationships, Scott (1986) emphasizes that â€Å"gender operates in multiple fields, including culturally